Please note this is not a technical document, but mainly describes quota and quota-related topics. Technical details will be introduced in the yellow paper.
The Definitions of Terms:
- Quota： In Vite, CPU cycles, storage space and network bandwidth consumed during transactions are paid by quota, instead of transaction fees
- PoW： Proof of Work, representing a certain amount of computational work has been performed
- Stake： Lock up an amount of VITE in the account for quota
- Staking address：The account who starts the staking transaction
- Quota recipient address：The account who receives quota
What is Quota
In Ethereum, in order to have a transaction executed timely, the sender usually has to offer an appealing transaction fee to miner. The higher gas price offered, the sooner transaction executed. In this typical bidding model, the supply of system processing capability and the demand of sending transactions are balanced by gas price automatically. This model works fine in Ethereum, however, from user's perspective it is hard to determine what is the best gas price to offer for a certain time. Either too low or too high price will cause a market failure. Moreover, since gas is associated with individual transactions, it is impossible to measure and allocate computational resources at account level. In Vite, instead of charging transaction fees, a certain amount of quota is consumed when user sends a transaction, such as transfer, deploying new smart contract, calling smart contract, issuing new token, registering SBP, retrieving mining rewards, voting and staking. Vite has implemented a quota model to meet the supply and demand of resources.
Quota can be obtained in two ways:
- Obtain one-time, small-amount quota by computing
PoWwhen sending transactions, or
- Stake VITE for account.
If you just simply need to send a transaction, you can choose
If you need send many transactions during a short period, you should stake VITE to get enough quota.
We recommend staking.
Quota Consumption Rules
Various quota consumptions of different transactions:
|Transaction Type||Quota Consumed||In Unit Transaction|
|Send a transfer without comment||21000||1|
|Receive a transfer||21000||1|
|Update SBP registration||62200||2.9619|
|Cancel SBP registration||83200||3.9619|
|Retrieve mining rewards||68200||3.2476|
|Stake for quota||82000||3.9048|
|Cancel staking for quota||73000||3.4762|
|Stake for quota via delegation||82000||3.9048|
|Cancel staking for quota via delegation||73000||3.4762|
|Issue new token||104525||4.9774|
|Mint additional token||69325||3.3012|
|Transfer token ownership||58981||2.8086|
|Change token type||63125||3.0060|
- Unit Transaction: The minimal transaction unit measured in quota consumption, equivalent to an un-commented transfer transaction
Each character in transaction's comment consumes additional 68 quota.
For example, given hex encoding is used, sending a transfer with a comment of '0x0001' (two characters) will consume
quota, which translates to
Due to implementation of VEP-8, additional 136 quota (2 characters prefix) will be cost if you send a transfer with comment from Vite official wallet. No additional quota will be cost if no comment is attached.
ConfirmTimes is assigned when creating new smart contract, for each response transaction of the contract, an additional quota about
ConfirmTimes * 200 will be charged.
ConfirmTimes defines a waiting number that specifies in how many confirmations the contract will produce a response after the request transaction is snapshotted.
Quotas are calculated in the following formulas:
: Quota obtained through
PoWcalculation. This quota is valid once and can only be used in current transaction
: Quota obtained by staking. This quota is long-time valid and can be accumulated for up to 75 snapshot blocks : Quota cap of one account, related to overall system throughput and total account number : The difficulty of
: The weight obtained through
: The staking amount : The weight obtained by staking : The idle time prior to sending a transaction, equivalent to height difference between the snapshot block that current transaction refers to and an earlier snapshot block that previous transaction refers to
In Vite TestNet,
= 1000000 = 6.259408129e-10 = 4.201037667e-24
UTPS: Unit transaction per second, referring to how many un-commented transfer transactions can be sent by one account in one second
The available quota of an account depends on UTPS and quota consumption during last 74 snapshot blocks. For example, account A has 1 UTPS quota through staking and hasn't send any transaction during last 74 snapshot blocks, then the available quota of account A is 75 UTPS.
The actual available quota of an account upon sending transaction depends on UTPS, quota consumption during last 74 snapshot blocks and
PoW calculation performed. For example, account B has 1 UTPS quota through staking, hasn't send any transaction during last 74 snapshot blocks, and calculated a
PoW having difficulty equivalent to 2 UTPS, then the available quota of account B is 77 UTPS.
For convenience in calculation, it is acceptable to calculate
|UTPS||Approximately equivalent to how much VITE staked without calculating ||Approximately equivalent to how difficult the |
For example, given
PoW is not calculated, staking 10000 and 20007 VITE will obtain 1 and 2 UTPS quota respectively,
while staking 134 VITE and waiting 75 snapshot blocks(approximately 75 seconds) also qualifies for sending a transfer transaction without comment.
Two Methods to Obtain Quota
Quota can be obtained through staking. The specified recipient account will receive the corresponding quota after the staking transaction is processed successfully.
- Staking amount: The minimum staking amount is 134 VITE
- Quota recipient address: The account who receives quota. This could be the staking account itself or any other account since staking for other accounts is permitted.
The VITE staked will be temporarily deducted from user's balance and cannot be transferred during staking period. The staking account can retrieve staked tokens after 259,200 snapshot blocks (about 3 days) by sending a cancel-staking transaction. As a result, the corresponding quota will be deducted from recipient's account immediately.
User can obtain one-time-valid quota by calculating
PoW upon sending transactions. According to above table, the target
PoW difficulty is 0x3FFFFFF for sending an uncommented transfer transaction with no staking.
In the TestNet, a central
PoW service has been built to serve the purpose of calculating
PoW from Vite wallets, some of which, like mobile wallets, may not have sufficient computation power to perform the calculation.
to in following formula: :
PoWdifficulty in 256-bit number, with zeros padded at front when less than 256 bits
PoWtarget in 256-bit number, usually having 1 at first bit
For example, given
- Work out correct
from transaction data. is the proof of work. In this process, random numbers are constantly assigned to until the following condition is met: